Neuroleptic tranquillizer to be used in large and small animals.
Acepromazine is a neuroleptic agent that belongs to the group of fenotiazines.
It has a sedative action. The animal's motor coordinated answers are not deeply affected. If used as premedicine, it helps in a soft recovery.
The main neuroleptic central activity is the CNS post-sinaptic dopaminical receivers blocking, thus increasing the dopamine renovation speed, that is to say, its synthesis and degradation in the brain.
Acepromazine depresses the reticular system portion whose function is to control the body temperature, the basal metabolism, emesis, vasomotor tone, hormonal balance and alert state.
It shows adrenergic blocking effects together with anticholinergic weak effects, antihistaminic and antispasmodics. It also gives more power to atropine sulphate, analgesics, hypnotics and general and local anaesthetics.
Anti-emetic action is related to dopamine receptors blocking in the chemo-receiving zone of the cord.
Acepromazine can cause depression in the respiratory volume and frequency; but there are no important alterations in the oxygen pressure, carbon dioxide, pH, and the oxyhemoglobin saturation. Clinically speaking, there is little effect on the respiratory activity. If hypotension is produced, respiratory frequency will increase due to a decrease of the activity of the aortic and carotid baroreceptors.
Besides producing an arterial blood pressure descent in dogs, the acepromazine increases the central venous pressure and has a bradycardic effect. Bradycardia could be counteracted due to the tachycardizing secondary reflex to the arterial pressure decrease. In horses and dogs, the reduction of hematocrits 30 minutes after application is doses dependant, and the effect can persist for -at least- 2 hours. In horses, the hematocrit pre-dose value can go down to 50%; probably, due to an increase in the splenic sequestration of the red blood cells.
Phenothiazines increase glucose in blood through epinephrine -in the adrenal cord- release. Besides, extra adrenal mechanisms are involved; its influence seems to be more important in the global effect over glycaemia. Insulin effect blocking is the main factor to determine the grade of hyperglycaemia produced.
Acepromazine has a high volume of distribution. After administration, the drug is latent 15 minutes, and its maximum activity stage takes place 30 or 60 minutes later. Its average duration time is 3 hours approximately. It metabolizes in the liver, producing conjugated and non conjugated metabolites which are eliminated through urine.
Pre-anaesthetics: 0.055-0.11 mg/kg IV, SQ or IM. Do not apply more than 3 mg total.
Tranquillizer: 0.025-0.03 mg/kg IV, SQ or IM.
If necessary you can repeat the dose after 6-8 hours.
IV injection must be done slowly. The first action can be seen after 15 minutes.
Pre-anaesthetics: 0.055-0.11 mg/kg IV, SQ or IM. Do not apply more than 1 mg total.
Tranquillizer: 0.025-0.03 mg/kg EV, SC or IM.
If necessary you can repeat the dose after 8-12 hours.
Tranquillizer: 4.4-8.8 mg/kg IV, SQ or IM.
Pre-anaesthetics: 2-5 mg/100 kg EV, SQ or IM.
• Cows: 0.01.0.1 mg/kg IV, SQ or IM.
• Sheep and Goats: 0.05-0.1 mg/kg IM.
Pre-anaesthetics: 0.1-0.2 mg/kg EV, SQ or IM. Do not apply more than 15 mg total.
Tranquillizer: 0.03-0.1 mg/kg IV.
Short immobilization terms: Acepromazine 0,5 mg/kg IM followed -30 minutes after- by Ketamine 15 mg/kg IM. Atropine could be administer (0,044 mg/kg IM) to reduce salivation and bronchial secretion.
Tranquillizer: 1 mg/kg IM, the effect will start 10 minutes after application and will last 1 or 2 hours.
As general rule, the mg/kg dose gets reduced as the animal's weight increases.
It is recommended to administer the minor reference dose in animals which present some/any of the characteristics mentioned in "Restrictions".
• Extra-pyramidal symptoms (rigidity, tremors, akinesia) or cataleptic symptoms are observed as secondary effects, particularly at high level doses.
• Overdosage could reduce respiratory frequency.
• In general, overdosage could be controlled by monitoring the patient and symptomatic treatment.
• Hypotension could be treated with phenylepinephrine or norepinephrine.
• Convulsions could be treated with Barbiturate, Midazolam or Diazepam.
• The suggested antagonist for the depressants effects of the CNS produced by acepromazine is Doxapram.
IV, SQ, IM injectable.
Vials containing 50 ml of sterile injectable solution.
INADRIM INYECTABLE is a neuroleptic tranquillizer indicated to sedate excited or aggressive animals and to make surgery movements for diagnosis, therapies (treat injuries, remove warts, cysts and stitches) and minor surgeries easier.
INADRIM INYECTABLE is specially used in association with local anaesthesias for castrations, skin tumor removals, ocular surgery and big animals knock-down.
It can be used alone or in combination with anaesthetics for induction and maintenance, thus making its effects stronger. It is frequently used 20 minutes before general anaesthesia.
It is compatible with halogen anaesthetics (halothane, methoxyflurane, among others), Thiopental Sodium, Midazolam, Lidocaine, Bupivacaine and Ketamine.
• Acepromazine must not be applied during a month after the treatment, in animals with organophosphorus compounds (including non-flea collars) due to the fact that acepromazine could make stronger the effect of organophosphorus complexes.
• Acepromazine applied with quinidine can produce cardiac depression.
• Phenothiazine applied with propanolol can increase both drugs´ levels in the blood.
• In case of hypovolemia or shock.
• In animals which suffer from tetanus or strychnine intoxication, due to the effects over the extra-pyramidal system.
• Do not administer this product until 1 month after treatment with organophosphorus compounds (including non-flea collars).
• Do not use epinephrine, due to the fact that acepromazine blocks central and peripherical effects of catecholamine and could prevent and revert epinephrine actions (epinephrine reversion). However, norepinephrine could be used without risks of empower fenotiazine hypo-tensional effects.
• In epidural anesthesia, due to the fact that empower arterial hypo-tensional effects of local anesthetics.
• When applied in dogs, acepromazine may produce effects that depend on individual variability and on breed.
• When applied in old animals, small doses were associated with extended effects of the drug.
• Big breeds (Pekinese, Bulldog) and Greyhounds breeds are extremely sensitive to the medicine; Terriers, however, are stronger against the drug effects.
• Boxers are very sensitive to hypo-tensional and bradycardic effects produced by this drug. That's why it should be used very carefully and in minimum doses. It is suggested to combine acepromazine with atropine to avoid acepromazine bradycardic effects.
• Avoid the drug in convulsive animals because it reduces the convulsive cutoff in CNS. Therefore, it should not be used in those animals or in animals under Myelography.
• Minor INADRIM INYECTABLE doses should be administered in weak, sick or cardiac animals, or in animals with hepatic problems.
• Due to its effects on thermoregulation, it should be used carefully in young or weak animals.
• Occasionally, there may be aggressive or excitement reactions
• INADRIM INYECTABLE reduces the dose of general anaesthetics to be administered due to the fact that it empowers general anaesthetics effects.
• Check heart beats, heart rhythm and blood pressure.
• The hypo-tensor effect should be considered. Take into account cardiovascular collapse produced by bradycardia and hypotension. Canines are the most sensitive animals to these effects.
• Acepromazine has not analgesic effects; therefore, in order to control pain, it should be used the suitable analgesic.
• In big species animals, it produces protrusion of the penis because of the sedative effect of the drug. In equines, this effect could last 2 hours. In non castrated males, particularly, it should be used very carefully due to the injuries that may occur resulting into inflammation and permanent paralysis of the retractor muscle of the penis. Other effects that could be observed in equines are excitement, perspiration, tremors, tachypnea, tachycardia and rarely convulsions.
• IV injection should be done slowly. In equines, it should not be administer intra-arterial via because it may produce acute excitement o depression in CNS, convulsion and death.
• Do not apply in sport equines during the 4 days previous to the competition.
• In bovines, it may produce ruminal content regurgitation during general anaesthesia induction.
• IM administration could provoke a passing pain in inoculation point.
• Recommended doses and warnings are to be determined by the veterinarian in charge.
• In order to keep its correct storage condition, keep this product at 4º - 25º C, protect from direct sunlight and in a clean dry place.
• Keep out from the reach of children.
• Under no circumstances should the content of this product been exposed to the environment or transferred; this could put in danger the suitable conservation of the product.