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Ketonal 100
Anesthetic
(Code: 0026-0007)

Price:u$d 21,91

Dissociative general anesthetic.
COMPOSITION
Ketamine Hidrochlorate 100mg/mL.

Ketamine is an anesthetic agent used alone or in combination with other anesthetics in combination can produce a level of relaxation and analgesia ideal.
Recommended for use in cattle, horses, sheep, pigs, dogs, cats, birds and exotic animals, including primates of all races, sex and age.
KETONAL 100 is a sterile injectable solution presented ready to use.

DOSAGE:

Cat:
Prior to the administration of ketamine, we recommend premedication with atropine to prevent saliva and other autonomic nervous system reactions. Protect, by using an eye cream applied to the cornea, excessive drying of the same

Ketamine may be used for clinical maneuvers that require the immobilization of the patient, x-rays and to induce the use of other general anesthetics.

Dose:
From 11 to 33 mg / kg intramuscularly, atropine 0.045 mg / kg intramuscularly, applied prior to ketamine.

Examples:
33 mg / kg. Uses: surgery (ovariohysterectomy, caesarean section, laparotomy, orthopedic surgery or trauma). For these surgeries are recommended for combination with inhalation agents.
22 mg / kg. Uses: minor surgery (castration, cutting nails or immobilization).
11 mg / kg. Uses: short detention or inhalation induction of anesthesia.

For a dose of 20 mg / kg described an effect of action applied for 3 minutes, with loss of reflexes for 10 minutes followed, with its peak action after 20 minutes, providing coverage for 30 more minutes of anesthesia , with recovery of the reflexes to Ios 60 minutes. The animal is taken for back in less than five hours after the administration of anesthetic.

Combinations:
May be combined with sodium thiopental (4.4 to 8.8 mg / kg IV) with acepromazine (0.2 mg / kg) with butorphanol (0.4 mg / kg) achieving optimal relaxation and analgesia.
Xylazine is recommended for muscle relaxation prior to administration of ketamine. It suggests a dose of 0.55 to 1.1 mg / kg intramuscularly (this may be combined with atropine), 10 to 20 minutes before administration of ketamine. If the combinations described the route chosen for implementation was the IV ketamine, the dose suggested in the "Examples" may be reduced by 50%

Canine:
In clinical routine, suggests a combination of premedication: atropine 0.045 mg / kg and acepromazine 0.55 mg / kg intramuscularly 10 to 15 minutes before administration of ketamine 11-22 mg / kg intramuscularly.

The combination of ketamine and xylazine were considered superior in effect of xylazine alone.
Premedication: atropine 0.045 mg / kg intramuscularly, continuing the administration of xylazine 0.55 mg / kg intramuscularly, and 10-15 minutes after the latter, given ketamine 22 mg / kg intravenously. This combination may be used to freeze or perform surgery of short duration or low complexity.

Primates:
Intravenous: 1-5 mg / kg
Intramuscular: 5 to 15 mg / kg

Birds:
Intramuscular: 10-20 mg / kg

Rabbits:
Intramuscular: 20-40 mg / kg

Sheep and swine:
Intramuscular or intravenous: 15 to 20 mg / kg. Premedication: atropine sulfate 0.2 mg / kg IM 15 minutes before being able to combine with 0.055 mg / kg of acepromazine. To prolong the anesthetic effect it if necessary, may be given doses of 2.2 to 6.6 mg / kg ketamine IM or IV.
Using a combination of xylazine 1 mg / kg ketamine 10 mg / kg intravenously is recommended for pigs of 50-60 kg liveweight.

Cattle:
For major and minor surgical procedures: 2 mg / kg intravenously quick. Do not lose reflexes of salivation, palpebral and anal. No regurgitation or bloating occur. The animal may be rough 24 hours prior to anesthesia. It will not be necessary to use any premedication.
Cattle recover the station 30 minutes after anesthetic application.

Horses:
A combination of ketamine and xylazine guaiacol glyceryl ether may be applied to obtain an optimal general anesthesia. Xylazine were administered 2.2 mg / kg IM 20 minutes before induction with EGG, then after obtaining decubitus apply ketamine 1.7 mg / kg IV.
May be a dose of ketamine 2.2 mg / kg at the same time or followed by the application of xylazine at 1.1 mg / kg IV (four minutes before ketamine). This combination will give short analgesia and anesthesia, can be employed to endotracheal intubation.

ADMINISTRATION:

Parenteral injection, intramuscular or intravenous bolus or drip infusion by means of permeable

See Dosage

PRESENTATION:

Vials containing 50 mL of sterile injectable solution.

OBSERVATIONS:
KETONAL 100 (base 100 mg ketamine / mL) is a highly versatile general anesthetic and security, especially suitable for emergency surgery, and that does not compromise the cardiorespiratory system of the animal are kept swallowing reflexes and keeps the upper airway free. The absence of fetal and uterine toxicity makes it an anesthetic of choice for use in cesarean sections and other surgical interventions in daily clinical routine (eg cosmetic surgery, castration, excisions of skin tumors and general sutures among others).
KETONAL 100 is indicated for use in all animal species, including non-domestic animals, including primates (see dosage)

CONTRAINDICATIONS:

• The use of ketamine, at recommended doses, does not produce significant changes in body temperature, but it should be noted that increasing the dose may be observed hypothermia, which must be controlled by external heat. The temperature is related to muscle tone. A low dose is kept slightly increased muscle tone and body temperature may rise, as doses are exceeded for less tone, hypothermia must be controlled.

• Ketamine is a poor muscle relaxant, used as single agent is not recommended for surgeries that require proper muscle relaxation.

• Salivation is intact, therefore premedicated with atropine is suggested prior to the use of ketamine. See dosage.

• Protect eyes with eye cream, to prevent excessive drying.

• Ketamine is contraindicated in patients with renal or liver failure which would increase the period of the drug in circulation, which could result to death of the animal.

• Do not use in animals with a history of hypersensitivity to the drug. Their use can be harmful in patients with malignant hypertension, prior heart failure or arterial aneurysms.

• The patient must be monitored and kept in a warm, dark place away from noise and environmental disturbances during recovery from anesthesia with ketamine

• respiratory depression can occur after high doses of ketamine have been reported cases of severe heart failure with the use of anesthetic premedication alone without combinations or high doses.

• With the use of ketamine in emergency surgical patients is not necessary fasting before, but whenever possible is recommended removal of solid intake 6 hours prior to anesthesia.

• By increasing blood pressure ketamine is recommended to control postoperative bleeding.

SIDE EFFECTS:
Side effects are usually associated with administration of large doses of ketamine: vomiting, screaming and howling, prolonged recovery and erratic, dyspnea, spastic movements, seizures, involuntary muscle spasm, hypertonicity and opisthotonos.

RESTRICTIONS:
• Not send for human consumption or industrial meat from treated animals until after at least five days of completion of the anesthesia.
• Not send for human consumption or industrial milk from treated animals until after at least 72 hours of the anesthesia.

WARNINGS:
• Verify that the system of inviolability of the product and its storage and preservation conditions prior to use are adequate.
• In all cases, the doses and frequencies are at the discretion of the veterinarian is acting.
• In no way should uncover the product, transfer or expose their contents to the environment, threatening maneuvers correctly and the preservation of the inviolability of the pack.
• Store at 4 and 25 º C, away from direct sunlight, in dry and hygienic.
• Recyclable packaging. Destroy after use and throw waste collectors and not in the field or road.
• Always consult your veterinarian.
• Do not ingest. Keep out of reach of children.

Presentation: x 50 ml.
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